Into the factory to understand the structure of LCD displays

When we delve into the structure of LCD liquid crystal display, we can see that it consists of several important components, each of which plays a key role. Let us understand one by one:

  1. glass substrate:
    The glass substrate is one of the basic components of the LCD. It is usually a thin sheet of glass with a flat surface covered with a transparent conductive layer, commonly used materials include Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). These conductive graphics are made through photolithography and processing to form the pixels and external connecting lines of the image. Therefore, it is critical to protect these graphics from damage, which may result in device damage if scratched or corroded.
  2. Color filters:
    LCD panels rely heavily on color filters for their ability to display color images. After the light passes through these filters, it then passes through the liquid crystal layer, forming a color image by controlling the arrangement state of the liquid crystal molecules. A combination of red, green and blue color filters is generally required to achieve color display.
  3. Orientation film:
    Orientation film is one of the key materials to control the arrangement of liquid crystal molecules. It is coated on the inside of the two electrode substrates of the display and forms grooves in a certain direction through friction treatment, thus affecting the alignment of liquid crystal molecules. This alignment is essential to ensure the effect of liquid crystal molecule orientation and helps to improve the display effect.
  4. Liquid crystal material:
    Liquid crystal material is the main material of the liquid crystal display, usually made of a mixture of a variety of single liquid crystal materials. Each liquid crystal material has its own inherent clear point and crystallization point. Therefore, they must be controlled within a certain temperature range when used or stored. Too low or too high a temperature will affect the performance of the liquid crystal display.
  5. Polarizer:
    Polarizers serve to polarize light passing through the liquid crystal layer. They help to regulate the direction of propagation of light to ensure that the light passes through the liquid crystal layer correctly to form an image.
  6. Driver Circuit:
    The driver circuit is the central part that controls the liquid crystal display. It realizes the image display by adjusting parameters such as voltage, phase, peak, frequency, and timing applied to the pixel electrodes. The design and optimization of the driver circuit is critical to the performance of the display.

These above components interact with each other and together form the structure of the LCD liquid crystal display. Their precise design and optimization enable LCDs to achieve high-quality image displays, which are widely used in a variety of devices such as TVs, computer monitors, and smartphones.

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